With most mammals, however, the majority of individuals are cisgender male or female; transgender individuals are estimated to comprise about 0. During normal feminization, sufficient estrogen is present in the fetal environment. In and , two independent teams of researchers decided to examine a region of the brain called the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis BSTc in trans- and cisgender men and women Figure 2. One classic way for scientists to test whether a trait which can be any characteristic from red hair to cancer susceptibility to love of horror movies is influenced by genetics is twin studies. This is a facet of identity that is completely distinct from sexual orientation.
For many years, psychologists characterized transgender identity as a psychological disorder. And it also appears that gender may not be as static as we assume. We are open to conversations about science whether you agree or disagree with the science presented here. If you have questions about why your comment was not accepted, please e-mail us at sitnbostonblog at gmail. This phenomenon could have two causes: Thus, if identical twins tend to share a trait more than fraternal twins, that trait is probably influenced by genetics. Identical twins have the exact same genetic background, and are usually raised in the same environment. Even though the fetal cells are capable of sensing estrogen, very little enters the fetal environment and the fetus is insufficiently feminized. Several studies have shown that identical twins are more often both transgender than fraternal twins, indicating that there is indeed a genetic influence for this identity. Thus, these two studies sought to examine the brains of transgender individuals to figure out if their brains better resembled their assigned or chosen sex. These findings have since been confirmed and corroborated in other studies and other regions of the brain, including a region of the brain called the sexually dimorphic nucleus Figure 2 that is believed to affect sexual behavior in animals. But whatever it is, for better or worse, it is probably not your most salient feature to the world around you. Transgender individuals are those who identify with a gender that differs from their assigned sex. This juxtaposes cisgender, or those who identify with their assigned gender. These differences remained even after the scientists took into account the fact that many transgender men and women in their study were taking estrogen and testosterone during their transition by including cisgender men and women who were also on hormones not corresponding to their assigned biological sex for a variety of medical reasons. The transgender identity is multi-dimensional — but it deserves no less recognition or respect than any other facet of humankind. During normal feminization, sufficient estrogen is present in the fetal environment. It has been conclusively shown that hormone treatment can vastly affect the structure and composition of the brain; thus, several teams sought to characterize the brains of transgender men and women who had not yet undergone hormone treatment. In March of this year, Governor Pat McCrory of North Carolina signed into law the Public Facilities Privacy and Security Act, banning individuals from public restrooms that do not correspond to their assigned biological sex. So, where do we stand on transgender issues? Interestingly, while the hormone treatments may have caused issues in the previous studies, they also gave scientists clues as to how these differences in brain anatomy may have arisen. Like many other facets of identity, it can operate on a broad range of levels and operate outside of many definitions. But we know now that several of those causes are biological. Little is known about the causes of transsexuality, and many of the studies that have been conducted — particularly psychological studies — have since been widely discredited more on that later. S, primarily in the Midwest and South, have attempted, but failed, to bring such bills into law in the past year. These decisions are dolled out in a typically binary fashion, with no expectations for ambiguity. The subset of transgender individuals who choose to undergo sexual reassignment surgery are often denoted as transsexual.
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