Thus, identical offenses committed in different states could produce very different outcomes in terms of public disclosure and registration period. Some states exclude low tier offenders from public registries while in others, all offenders are publicly listed. The thought of getting on the sex offender registry may or may not deter non-sex offenders from committing sex crimes.
However political lobby group the Sensible Sentencing Trust has criticised the proposed register for its lack of public access. Some states exclude low tier offenders from public registries while in others, all offenders are publicly listed. Instead, registration is a mandatory collateral consequence of criminal conviction. Information pertaining to names, addresses, physical description and vehicles are made public via official websites. The results of the study were that sex offender recidivism was, in fact, slightly lower in states where sex offenders were not required to register. People listed on the register are prohibited from working with children or mentally disabled people, from managing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and from being foster parents or adoptive parents. In other states, offenders are categorized according to the tier level related to statute of conviction. In New York specifically, kidnapping and unlawful imprisonment are registerable offenses only if the victim is under 17 and the offender is not a parent of the victim. Some states have Civic Confinement laws, which allow very-high-risk sex offenders to be placed in secure facilities, "in many ways like prisons", where they are supposed to be offered treatment and regularly reevaluated for possible release. Residency restrictions may even cause a sex offender's family to be homeless. For example, residency restrictions will make it harder for a sex offender's spouse and children, not just a sex offender themselves, to find housing. In the late s, a study showed that Indiana sex offenders have recidivism of about 1. According to ATSA , only in the states that utilize empirically derived risk assessment procedures and publicly identify only high risk offenders, has community notification demonstrated some effectiveness. News reports in revealed that some registered sex offenders were living outside or under the Julia Tuttle Causeway in Miami, Florida because Miami-Dade County ordinances, which are more restrictive than Florida's state laws, made it virtually impossible for them to find housing. While these disparities in level of public disclosure among different states might cause unexpected problems after registration, they have also caused some registrants to move into locations where public disclosure of lower level offenders is not permitted, in order to avoid public persecution and other adverse effects of public disclosure they were experiencing in their original location. This made Agan question whether creating sex offender registries was a rational idea. Several challenges to some parts of state level sex offender laws have succeeded, however. Despite the public perception of sex offenders as having high recidivism, sex offenders had the second lowest recidivism rate, after only murderers, but sex offenders were about four times more likely than non-sex offenders to be arrested for another sex crime after their discharge from prison. A November Maryland Court of Appeals ruling exempts homeless persons from that state's registration requirements, which has prompted a drive to compose new laws covering this contingency. In the United States[ edit ] In some localities in the United States, the lists of all sex offenders are made available to the public: In some states only the highest risk Tier III offenders are subject to public disclosure, while some states also include moderate-risk Tier II offenders in public websites. These disparities in state legislation have caused unexpected problems to some registrants when moving from state to another, finding themselves subject to public disclosure on their destination state's sex offender website, and longer registration periods sometimes for life , even though they originally were excluded from public registry and required to register for a shorter period. In some US jurisdictions, the level of offender is reflecting the evaluated recidivism risk of the individual offender, while in others, the level is designated merely by the virtue of conviction, without assessing the risk level posed by the offender. Level Tier I, Level II, and Level III offenders, information is usually accessible related to that level information being more accessible to the public for higher level offenders. Facebook and Instagram prohibit any convicted sex offender from accessing or contributing to their websites. Public Indecency , in violation of C. Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Montana all have publicly accessible registries for those convicted of murder.
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Police warn parents about sex offenders in their neighborhoods ahead of Halloween
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