Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personality , a person too concerned with neatness and order. The psychoanalyst Freud noted that "Hans had to be told many things that he could not say himself" and that "he had to be presented with thoughts, which he had, so far, shown no signs of possessing". It is assumed that some libido is permanently invested in each psychosexual stage and thus each person will behave in some ways that are characteristic of infancy, or early childhood. Not as daft as it sounds.
For example, fixation at the oral stage may result in a person gaining sexual pleasure primarily from kissing and oral sex, rather than sexual intercourse. On the negative side there is always expressed concern over the cost. Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, and results in conflict between the id demanding immediate gratification and the ego demanding delayed gratification in eliminating bodily wastes, and handling related activities e. Phallic Stage 3 to 5 or 6 years Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation in both sexes becomes a new source of pleasure. The nature of this first conflict with authority can determine the child's future relationship with all forms of authority. The first defense mechanism is repression , the blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind; yet it does not resolve the Id—Ego conflict. The ego and superego develop in order to exercise this control and direct the need for gratification into socially acceptable channels. The psychological difference between the phallic and genital stages is that the ego is established in the latter; the person's concern shifts from primary-drive gratification instinct to applying secondary process-thinking to gratify desire symbolically and intellectually by means of friendships, a love relationship, family and adult responsibilities. Not as daft as it sounds. Moreover, after the phallic stage, the girl's psychosexual development includes transferring her primary erogenous zone from the infantile clitoris to the adult vagina. They like giving things away. To integrate the female libido sexual desire to psychosexual development, he proposed that girls develop " penis envy ". Freud stressed that the first five years of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality. Oral stage The first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stage , spanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, and from the oral exploration of his or her environment, i. Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes, and behaviors of another person. Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth orientated, such as sucking, biting, and breastfeeding. Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Psychosexual development includes constituents: In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. Both frustration and overindulgence or any combination of the two may lead to what psychoanalysts call fixation at a particular psychosexual stage. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage, and sexual energy can be sublimated re: If the child obeys the id, and the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. Oedipus Complex The most important aspect of the phallic stage is the Oedipus complex. Electra , by Sophocles. He reported that in the insular matriarchal society of the Trobriand, boys are disciplined by their maternal uncles, not their fathers; impartial, avuncular discipline. On the plus side, psychoanalysis do present a client with the structure and time to resolve neurotic issues.
Video about freud cognitive development theory:
Overview of Theories of Development
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